Electrical safety is an important basic requirement under which technology products are approved for the market. It is therefore an integral part of the regulatory tests for certification and the associated market approval.
Electrical safety is subject to various certification regimes: While the NRTL (Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory) approval covers regulatory testing for the US and Canadian areas, the so-called CB (Certified Body) Scheme is an international system that deals with the safety of electrical and electronic components, devices and products. The latter serves the mutual recognition of test reports and certificates among the approximately 50 participating countries.
Depending on the approval objective of the equipment to be tested, various test scenarios are run through. Regardless of the approval regime, the necessary electrical safety tests can be divided into the following areas, among others:
The low-resistance passage through the protective conductor is measured. Even a short-term high protective conductor resistance indicates an interruption of the protective conductor or a fault in a protective conductor path.
Here the possible flow of a harmful current through the human body is tested, if necessary also through the protective conductor resistance.
These tests are used to check the insulation strength of electronic components in the low voltage range (protection classes I and II).
In a so-called climatic cabinet the devices are tested for their reactions at extreme temperatures.
In accordance with the specifications, the robustness of the test object is measured with Reference to mechanical load checked.
The European part for electrical safety is defined by the associated EN/IEC standards. We are accredited by the German Accreditation Body (DAkkS) to carry out regulatory testing of electrical safety in accordance with the following norms and standards, and thus accompany you on the way to market approval:
We also offer electrical safety product testing for other non-European target markets in cooperation with our partner laboratories. In this way, we can guarantee you rapid completion of the regulatory electrical safety tests as part of the market approval process.
If your product requires electrical safety tests that go beyond our accreditations, we will carry out the measurements in one of our partner laboratories. In this way you continue to receive the efficient service of our services from a single source.
Our laboratory in Essen is accredited by the DAkkS according to DIN ISO 17025 to carry out a wide range of electrical safety tests.
Detailed information on the scope of our accreditation for our laboratories in Germany can be found in our accreditation overview.
Electrical safety avoids hazards caused by electric current and its effect on the human body – at worst by an electric shock, which even small electrical appliances can cause. It is therefore a basic prerequisite for the market approval of electronic devices.
As a rule, each approval regime has its own standards according to which the electrical safety of technical devices is tested. It is therefore essential to find out about the respective requirements.
The main difference is the regional availability of the two approval systems NRTL and CB Scheme: Products tested by NRTL-approved laboratories are approved for the US and Canadian markets. The CB Scheme, on the other hand, is a multilateral agreement that has emerged from the European Commission for Conformity Testing of Electrical Equipment (CEE). Products with this approval may be traded in the markets of the member states of the International Commission on the Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment (IECEE).
The 1500 V are assumed as transient voltage from external circuits.
|Cable type||Additional conditions||Transient voltages|
|conductors arranged in pairsª – shielded or unshielded||The building or structure can, but does not have to be potential equalization||
1500 V 10/700 μs
Only differential, if a conductor in the facility is connected to ground
Important: This requirement only applies to interfaces that are not “in-house” interfaces.
AV devices fall under EN 62368-1, where moving parts are also considered in chapter 8 (mechanics). Fans are classified accordingly and safety measurements are required. The Machinery Directive does not have to be applied from an approval point of view.
The CB Scheme simplifies access to numerous markets by avoiding multiple testing. Obtaining the necessary international certifications for market access can be difficult, time-consuming and expensive. The CB Scheme, created by the IECEE (International Electrotechnical Commission for Electrical Equipment), enables faster and easier access to global markets. It is a process for mutual recognition of test results among participating countries. As a rule, no additional tests are required. A CB test report from a CBTL (CB Testing Laboratory) and a corresponding CB certificate from an NCB will help you meeting a wide range of international safety requirements and gaining access to the market in over 50 countries.
If batteries are installed in the device, a data sheet and a certificate are required. The installed batteries are then tested according to EN 62368-1. There it will be checked if overcharging of rechargeable batteries is possible; short circuit of the battery, charging of a rechargeable battery with reversed poles (if possible) and errors in the charging and discharging circuit will be performed.
For EN 62368-1:2014, AC:2015 to EN 62368-1:2014 and AC:2015+A11:2017 there was only the following change: In annex ZC the Italian deviation in section F.1 was deleted.
No, not necessarily. However, it must be determined by means of risk assessment whether the FW update has an influence on the previous conformity statement. In any case, the DoC (Declaration of Conformity) must also be completed for the new SW/HW combination. The risk analysis shows whether new tests are necessary.
The 2020 version is only available in the IEC version. The committee has rejected the harmonization, so this version will not be implemented into European law. Therefore EN 62368-1:2014 + AC:2015 + A11:2017 is the current version for EN at the moment.
The Low Voltage Directive only applies from a voltage of 75 V DC. If your device falls under the RED, the device will automatically fall under the low voltage directive (voltage limits are lowered to 0 V.) If the RED does not cover your equipment, your equipment is not actually covered by the Low Voltage Directive, but the Product Safety Law applies, which states that no equipment is placed on the market unsafe. As the manufacturer, you can either guarantee safety yourself (not recommended) or you can still test according to the Low Voltage Directive. We recommend that you test your device in accordance with the Low Voltage Directive anyway, so that you can prove the conformity of the Low Voltage Directive with a valid test report in your manufacturer’s conformity.
A battery operated flashlight is not covered by LVD. The product safety law applies, which expresses that no devices are placed on the market unsafe. You should only install certified batteries. If you are not sure that you comply with the Product Safety Law, it is still recommended to test according to LVD. However, EN 62368-1 is not applicable here.
Unfortunately, there is no checklist. It is recommended to buy the standard and to deal with the security requirements. Since every device is individual, the application of safety features is also individual and cannot be generalized.
There are no known counterparts to EN 62368-1. There are, however, other safety standards that industries can demand, but which are not mandatory from a regulatory approval point of view (e.g. CB Scheme or NRTL Scheme).
Essentially, this requirement is also included in the RED (Radio Equipment Directive) under the heading “Health”, but may also fall under the LVD, depending on the circumstances. First, a distinction must be made between body-worn devices with radio interface and non-body-worn devices. Body-worn means that a device is worn or used more or less permanently at a distance of less than 20 cm from the body. Then it is about the output power (radiated). Devices with low output power:
In general: The guarantee of health protection (RED 3.1a) can be evaluated/tested differently depending on the type of device:
First of all, the directive does not distinguish between end users. This is only done in the 62368. The safety assessment considers who will work with the device and whether it is safe for this user to work with the device. The documentation is the same for all users for the time being. If necessary, the documentation is written differently for the inexperienced user than for the professional user, but this is not mandatory.
The safety precautions depend on the user. Depending on the device, safety instructions can be omitted if it is obvious to a professional user. In principle, however, it also applies that no increased safety risks should be allowed for skilled workers
Since this standard has a completely new approach, it must be completely retested. The 60950-22 is accepted in EN 62368-1 and does not require retesting.
Yes, because the Bluetooth interface turns the product into a radio, so it must also be newly certified according to 62368-1.
In principle, the LVD does not apply here. The Product Safety Law applies, which expresses that no equipment is placed on the market unsafe. As the manufacturer, you can either guarantee safety yourself (not recommended) or you can still test according to the Low Voltage Directive. We recommend that you test your device in accordance with the Low Voltage Directive anyway, so that you can prove the conformity of the Low Voltage Directive with a valid test report in your manufacturer’s conformity.
The biggest advantage is of course the cost factor. If, for example, power supply units, transformers, VDR or similar are installed in the device, they are only tested for the area of application within the scope of 62368-1. Safety-relevant components must be certified according to certain standards. Otherwise they would have to be tested separately.
In general, it is not required to test the integrated component itself. Anyway, it would make sense to respect the final device requirements for LVD. This applies to temperature usage range, for example, as the motherboard and its components will be checked together with the final device. So a pretesting can take place, but it is no “must”, as the board itself cannot operate solely. Anyway, a pretested motherboard will save cost for the final product, to be tested.
The requirements are the same as for other components, plus everything that comes with the fan rotation.
As of today, there is no successor standard for the 60950-22. That part of the 60950 is still valid and can be tested according to. We cannot foresee how the 62368 will develop, but we expect the “new” part of 62368 will be an integration of the 60950-22.
The voltage and current ratings apply to the device in any case and condition, as these are the normal operating conditions. These are listed to prevent an operation with for example 110 V. Fault conditions are not covered here.
62368 does not necessarily insist on an IEC Standard for a battery. It was mentioned that a battery best comes with a certificate so that additional testing is not necessary.
These modules must be certified according to 62368-1 if they are newly produced or still brought into the market after December 2020.
A list of DIN standards can be found under
No, these fall not under the LVD, as they are not actively powered.
No, this is not allowed. The RED OJ will point to 62368 sooner or later, as 60950-1 will no longer be valid from December 2020 onwards.
Ground aviation equipment does not fall under LVD, but under aviation requirements.
Yes, a device can pass 62368 and fail CB Scheme, even if this is unlikely.
IEC 62368-1: 2018 is not harmonized in the EU. The 2017 version is the standard currently to be tested.
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